Rights and Security


  • Is ownership of a trademark in your jurisdiction identified on a first-to-file or first-to-use basis?

Ownership of a trademark in India is identified on a first-to-use basis. Unlike the law on patents or designs, the trademark law mandates the first-to-use guideline over the first-to-file rule.
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Unregistered trademarks

  • What legal protections are available to unregistered trademarks?

As a first-to-use nation, unregistered trademarks with prior usage can be safeguarded under common law in India. The passing off of hallmarks is a tort actionable under typical law and is mainly used to secure the goodwill attached to unregistered trademarks. It is founded on the standard tenet of law that one party needs to not gain from the labor of another. Numerous judicial decisions have developed that a passing-off action is a misrepresentation made by an individual in the course of trade to potential consumers of the manufacturer or the ultimate customers of the goods or services that it supplies:

which is determined to injure the business or goodwill of another party; and
which triggers real damage to the service or goodwill of the party which has actually brought or is most likely to bring the action.
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  • How are rights in unregistered marks developed?

In a normal passing-off match, the courts will usually think about the following concerns:

The trademark law accords extraordinary protection to trademarks that are well understood and safeguards them from infringement or passing off. The Trademarks Registry identifies well-known hallmarks in India on the basis of global, nationwide and cross-border track records.

whether the complainant is a prior user of the mark;
whether the plaintiff s products have actually obtained diversity and are associated in the minds of the public with the complainant s mark; and
whether there is a misrepresentation by the offender with regard to its items and such misrepresentation is likely to lead to confusion in the minds of customers, with the result that they might treat the offender s products as those of the complainant.
Are any unique rights and securities afforded to owners of well-known and well-known marks?

The Trademarks Act 1999 secures popular hallmarks in 2 ways:

an action versus the registration of comparable marks; and
an action versus the abuse of the well-known mark.
To what level are foreign trademark registrations acknowledged in your jurisdiction?

Foreign trademark registrations have convincing value in support of:

an application for registration of an identical mark by the very same candidate;
opposition by the rights holder versus an application for a comparable mark; and
violation and passing-off actions.
Registered trademarks

  • What legal rights and defenses are accorded to registered trademarks?

A trademark registration:

provides prima facie evidence of ownership and validity;
supplies statutory protection in India;
assists to prevent others from using the trademark unlawfully; and
enables a suit for infringement to be brought.
In contrast, when it comes to an unregistered mark, a passing-off suit can be filed. As passing off is a common law remedy, the problem of evidence is more serious on the plaintiff than in an infringement action.

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